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Phase selection of stepper motor


When choosing a stepper motor, the advantages and disadvantages of various stepper motors must be considered first. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of stepper motors with different phases:

两相永磁式( PM )型步进电机 Two-phase permanent magnet ( PM ) type stepper motor

⑴Benefits

① Cheap. HB )型步进电机的价格低 1/2 Generally it is 1/2 lower than the price of the same size hybrid ( HB ) stepper motor .

HB )型步进电机比较,气隙大,爪级构造,步距角度大,即同一转速情况下,想切换的次数小、噪音较低。 ② Compared with the hybrid ( HB ) stepper motor, the air gap is large, the claw-level structure, and the step angle is large, that is, the number of times of switching is small and the noise is low at the same speed.

⑵ Disadvantages:

7.5 °比较大)的关系,位置定位误差比混合式( HB )型步进电机要差,特别是 1 相激磁时的角度精度会更差。 ① Due to the low resolution (the step angle is larger at 7.5 °), the position positioning error is worse than that of the hybrid ( HB ) type stepper motor, especially the angular accuracy during 1- phase excitation will be worse. PM )型步进电机位置定位非 2 相激磁,要达到满意的位置精度一般很难,低速范围(在 200rpm 以下)的转矩波动大。 Half-step position accuracy is generally not good. Permanent magnet ( PM ) stepper motors are non- two- phase excited. It is generally difficult to achieve satisfactory position accuracy . Torque fluctuations in the low speed range (below 200 rpm ) are large.

② Because the air gap is large, the root of the claw stage is prone to magnetic saturation, resulting in a small output torque.

③ The bearing adopts metal sliding bearing, which has short life.

HB )型步进电机要大。 ④ The rotor generally uses ferrite magnetic poles, and the temperature characteristics are not good. If it is used for a long time, the torque drop is larger than that of the hybrid ( HB ) stepper motor.


两相混合式( HB )型步进电机 Two-phase hybrid ( HB ) stepping motor

⑴ Advantages:

1.8 °的较多)而被广泛使用。 ① It has high resolution (generally a step angle of 1.8 °) and is widely used.

② High torque.

HB )型步进电机比较,驱动功率管用量多,但价格便宜。 ③ Compared with multi-phase hybrid ( HB ) stepper motors, the drive power tube uses more, but the price is cheaper.

⑵ Disadvantages:

60rpm 附近容易产生共振。 ① Vibration is large at low speeds, and resonance easily occurs near 60 rpm .

② Noise at high speeds.

HB )型步进电机比较,半步进时的转矩波动大( 1:1.14 )。 ③ Compared with the multi-phase hybrid ( HB ) stepping motor, the torque fluctuation is large at half step ( 1: 1.14 ).

④ Compared with step motors with phase-synchronized pitch angles, compared with multi-phase motors, the coil impedance is large and the torque is small at high speeds.


三相混合式( HB )型步进电机 Three-phase hybrid ( HB ) stepping motor

⑴ Advantages:

1.5 倍,能进行高精度位置定位。 ① The resolution is 1.5 times that of the two-phase motor , which can perform high-precision position positioning.

6 ,交链磁通大,而且两相激磁时的转矩合成效率比两相电机好,转矩较高。 ② The number of main stages of the stator is 6 , the cross-link magnetic flux is large, and the torque synthesis efficiency during two-phase excitation is better than that of two-phase motors, and the torque is higher.

Y 接线或△接线, 3 端子 6 个功率管,比两相电机 8 个功率管少。 ③ It can be Y- connected or △ -connected. It has 6 power tubes with 3 terminals , which is less than 8 power tubes with two-phase motors .

④ Because of the three-phase structure, the third harmonic of the excitation current is canceled, and the vibration sum is already smaller than that of the two-phase motor.

4 次谐波变为三相电机的 6 次谐波,齿槽转矩比两相电机小。 ⑤The cogging torque is changed from the 4th harmonic of the two-phase motor to the 6th harmonic of the three -phase motor.

⑵ Disadvantages:

12 主极,则比两相电机的 8 主极结构要复杂。 If it is 12 main poles, it is more complicated than the 8 main pole structure of the two-phase motor .


三相混合式( PM )型步进电机 Three-phase hybrid ( PM ) stepping motor

⑴ Advantages:

PM 型步进电机 1.5 倍多。 ① The resolution is more than 1.5 times of the two-phase PM stepper motor .

PM 型步进电机或两相 HB 型步进电机小。 ② Vibration and noise are smaller than two-phase PM stepper motor or two-phase HB stepper motor.

PM 型步进电机大。 ③ High-speed torque is larger than two-phase PM stepper motor.

HB 型步进电机便宜 Cheaper than HB stepper motor

6 个功率管驱动。 ⑤ The driving advantage of the three-phase motor is that it is driven by only six power tubes.

⑵ Disadvantages:

PM 型步进电机结构复杂。 The structure is more complicated than the two-phase PM stepper motor.

According to the above characteristics, correctly select the type of stepper motor for the proper use. The initial correct selection can avoid the trouble caused by improper use. If you want to select the correct type of motor, you should pay attention to the output torque or step angle required by the load and the best driving method.

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